Work Package 2 of Telematics for Libraries project BIBLINK (LB 4034)
Table of Contents
The use of identifiers has a long history in both
the publishing and book selling industry and in libraries. Unique
identifiers are critical to the successful handling of electronic
documents. The use of ISSN and ISBN have been vital to the implementation
of electronic ordering of books and journals. Automated library
systems also depend on unique identification of items in their
Currently, electronic documents are covered by unique
identifiers to a lesser extent than paper documents, often because
these new media are published by «publishers» outside
the traditional publishing industry. In some cases existing identification
schemes, for example ISSN and SICI, have been used for electronic
documents though this has primarily been for off-line documents
With the growing number of documents available on
the Internet, the need for a unique and persistent identifier
has become more important. World Wide Web resources are identified
by a URL (Uniform Resource Locator). However, because the URL
changes when a document is moved from one location to another,
there is a general problem for all users of the Internet keeping
track of the location of documents. In order to solve these problems
several initiatives have been undertaken by the Internet community.
Workpackage 2 Identification
identifies, evaluates and makes recommendations for unique identifiers
for the BIBLINK project. Information about the existing numbering
schemes for «traditional» paper publications and use
of these schemes for electronic documents has been collected and
analysed. The same has been done with information about existing
and emerging standards in the Internet community and in the publishing
A set of requirements for unique identifiers for
BIBLINK have been drawn up. The requirements are found in section
Section 5 describes existing identification schemes.
A list of potentially interesting schemes is provided. The list
includes a recommendation on which of the schemes should be investigated
further. In addition, a template with a list of the aspects that
should be looked into when analysing the identification schemes
has been drawn up. The template is used to give an overview of
the different schemes and to match the list of requirements. The
recommended schemes are investigated according to the template.
In section 6 each of the recommended schemes is evaluated
against the list of requirements in section 4.
In section 7 a conclusion and a recommendation is
drawn based on the evaluation in section 6.
General background literature:
D0.1 Scoping document : BIBLINK LB4034 / Trudi Nordermeer. - The
Hyllesignaturer og ISBN for det virtuelle bibliotek / av Arthur N. Olsen.
- In: Synopsis. - nr. 5 (1996). - In Norwegian.
Tools and standards for protection, control and presentation of data /
Douglas Armati. - In: Joint ICSU Press/UNESCO Expert Conference on
ELECTRONIC PUBLISHING IN SCIENCE. - Paris, 1996.
Unique Identifiers : a brief introduction / by Brian Green and Mark Bide.
- London, 1996.
Unique identifiers in a digital world / Andy Powell. - In: Ariadne. -
Issue 8 (1997).
ISSN : internasjonalt standardnummer for periodika. - Oslo, 1988. - In
ISSN international centre.
ISBN - Internasjonalt standard boknummer. - Oslo, 1994. - In Norwegian.
National Library of Australia : overview of the ISBN System.
Notes on the allocation of ISBNs to non-printed books / by Alan Mollison. - In: ISBN Review. - No. 16 (1995).
Westons information page : the ISBN International Standard Book Number.
Guidelines on the application of ISBN and to electronic publications / approved by ISO TC 46 / SC 9 and the international ISSN centre. - Berlin, 1997. - Paper with preliminary version, received from the International ISBN agency in February 1997.
ANSI/NISO Z39.56-199X : Serial Item and Contribution Identifier /
submitted to NISO by the SICI Revision Committee on January 1, 1996. -
(Version 2) Ballot Draft.
Elsevier Science General Information : Publisher Item Identifier as a
means of document identification.
IETF URN Working Group Discussion Space.
RFC1737 : functional requirements for Uniform Resource Names / K.
Sollins, L. Masinter. - [S.l], 1994.
Uniform Resource Names : a progress report. - In: D-Lib Magazine. -
URN Syntax Internet Draft (draft-ietf-urn-syntax-02.txt) / Ryan Moats. - [S.l], 1996.
DOI : Digital Object Identifiers : an overview / Association of American
Publishers, Inc., R.R Bowker a division of Reed Elsevier, Inc.,
Corporation for National Research Initiatives. - Preliminary
Digital object identifier system.
The Handle System : version 3.0 : an Overview / CNRI.
Introduction to Persistent Uniform Resource Locators / Keith Shafer...
[et.al]. - Dublin, Ohio, 1996.
PURL / The PURL team.
This Glossary describes terms which are most relevant in the context of the BIBLINK project and this deliverable. Further information about the terms can be found in the following glossaries:
AAP Association of American
ANSI American National
Bar-code a code arranged
in a series of parallel lines or bars, representing data that
is transferred by a bar-code scanner or Light pen into digital
signals for computer use.
Bibliographic description a
set of formalised data elements describing a publication.
Bibliographic record a
discrete bibliographic description stored either manually or electronically.
Braille A system of reading
and writing for the blind in which the letters are formed by raised
dots embossed into the paper in groups of six, three high and
two wide. Named after the inventor Louis Braille.
BIC Book Industry Communications
BICI Book Item and Component
CAE/IP number Compositeur,
Auteur, Editeur /Interested Party number. Identifies the creators
and publishers of music and literary texts. Part of CIS.
CIS Common Information
System. Initiative taken by the International Confederation of
Authors and Composers' Societies (CISAC) and the International
Federation of Phonograph Industries (IFPI).
CISAC International Confederation
of Authors and Composers' Societies
CD-i Compact disc interactive
CD-ROM Compact Disc Read
CNRI Corporation for National
Database (DB) a computer
Program for entering, storing and retrieving items of information
in a structured fashion.
Deposit of publications a
system in operation in most countries, usually legally enforced,
whereby publishers must deposit one or more copies of every publication
with nominated libraries. Often referred to as Legal Deposit.
DOI Digital Object Identifier
DNS Domain Name Server
EAN European Article Number.
A system for the identification of products, services utilities,
transport units and locations. The information is represented
in standard bar-codes.
Electronic document see
Electronic journal similar
to a traditional journal but published only in electronic form
- on a CD-ROM or the World Wide Web.
Electronic publisher see
Electronic publication document,
file, journal, etc. made available in electronic form.
Floppy disk a type of
computer storage medium, capable of storing up to 2 MB of data.
Most commonly available in 3.5 inch size.
Handle system a Handle
is a name used to identify items and other Internet resources.
The Handle System is a distributed computer system which stores
these names and provides the information that is needed to locate
and access these items.
HTTP HyperText Transfer
Protocol. The protocol used for communication between Web clients
IEEE The Institute of
Electrical and Electronics Engineers
IETF Internet Engineering
ILL Inter-Library Loan
Internet the world wide
network of computer systems connected to each other.
ISAN International Standard
AudioVisual Number. Identifies individual audiovisual works such
as film or television programmes in a similar fashion to the ISRC.
Part of CIS.
ISBD International Standard
Bibliographic Description. There are seven specific ISBDs as well
as the general ISBD(G): monographs -(M), serial publications -(S),
cartographic material -(CM), non-book material -(NBM), printed
music -(PM), antiquarian publications -(A), computer files -(CF).
ISBN International Standard
ISMN International Standard
Music Number. Identifies the published edition of printed music.
Part of CIS.
ISO International Organization for StandardizationBR>
ISRC The International
Standard Recording Code. Identifies individual sound recordings
(such as make up the music tracks on CDs). Part of CIS.
ISSN International Standard
ISWC International Standard
Work Code. Identifies the musical composition itself, rather than
the printed or recorded expression of the work. Part of CIS.
Legal Deposit see Deposit
MARC Machine Readable
Cataloguing. A family of formats based on ISO 2709 for the exchange
of bibliographic and other related information in machine readable
form. For example USMARC and UNIMARC.
Metadata information about
a publication as opposed to the content of the publication; includes
not only bibliographic description but also other relevant information
such as its subject, price, conditions of use, etc.
Microform any form of
micro record, whether on flat or roll film, paper or other material.
Modulus 11 Check digit
Modulus 37 Check digit
Monograph a publication
either complete in one part or complete, or intended to be completed,
in a finite number of separate parts. A non-serial publication.
Multimedia a publication
in which images, sound and text are integrated.
Namespace a space of identifiers
governed by a common set of rules on syntax and semantics.
National Bibliography a
listing of all national publications. May include all publications
produced in that country, or in the language of that country,
or sometimes about that country.
NID Namespace Identifier
NISO National Information
OCLC On-line Computer
On-line publication an
on-line resource is an electronic document which is bibliographically
identifiable, which is stored in machine readable form on an electronic
storage medium and which is available on-line. For example - a
Off-line publication an
off-line publication is an electronic document which is bibliographically
identifiable, which is stored in machine readable form on an electronic
storage medium. For example - a CD-ROM.
OPAC Online Public Access
PDF Portable Document
PURL Persistent Uniform
PII Publisher Item Identifier
containing either text or sound or images, or combinations of
these, packaged for wider distribution, whether off-line (e.g.
printed book, CD-ROM) or on-line (e.g. Web, database for information
Publisher a person or
organisation that produces documents and makes them available.
Newly emerging publishers may produce and distribute documents
electronically - for instance, on the Web.
Record see Bibliographic
Resolution service A service
that facilitates the maintenance of a permanent resolution (link)
between one identifier and another, e.g. between an URL and a
Resolver service see Resolution serviceBR>
Serial a publication in
any medium issued in successive parts bearing numeric or chronological
designations and intended to be continued indefinitely. Serials
include periodicals; newspapers; annuals (reports, yearbooks,
etc.); the journals, memoirs, proceedings, transactions etc. of
societies; and numbered monographic series.
SICI Serial Item and Contribution
SISAC US Serials Industry
Systems Advisory Committee
SGML (ISO 8879) Standard
Generalised Mark-up Language. ISO standard for document description,
separating contents and structure.
SMPTE Society of Motion
Picture & Television Engineers
URC Uniform Resource Characteristics
URL Uniform Resource Locator.
The standard way to give the address of a source of information
on the WWW. It contains four different parts: the protocol type,
the machine name, the directory path and the file name. For example:
URN Uniform Resource Name
Voluntary Deposit see
Deposit of Publications
World Wide Web The global
set of Internet web sites offering world wide access to information
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