9. Cataloguing Electronic Publications With MARC
The various MARC formats are going through the process of being updated to enable cataloguing of electronic publications, in particular on-line publications. MARC format has the unique value for integrating metadata describing electronic resources into existing legacy systems. If libraries wish to integrate metadata into their existing systems, and use existing software (albeit with some updating to deal with new fields) then MARC offers a solution.
Most work has been done on adapting the USMARC format for the cataloguing items accessible through the Internet. OCLC's Intercat project has served as a test bed for the cataloguing of network resources, and as a means to introduce and verify new fields and fine tune as required. Over 200 libraries are participating in this project, the majority of them academic (60%) and nearly all of them situated in the US. There are now over 7,000 records in the Intercat database.
A guide has been produced as an output of the project:
Note that this guide is designed for OCLC users and examples and guidelines follow OCLC MARC rather then USMARC. In most circumstances there is little difference between the two formats.
The ISBD manual covering electronic resources is now awaiting final publication (after consultation). Following issue of the new cataloguing manual ISBD(ER), amendments may be required to UKMARC and UNIMARC.
At present the convergence programme between UKMARC and USMARC is underway. The policy is to adopt USMARC usage for the relevant fields relating to electronic publications and the proposed changes to UKMARC are going through the consultation procedure. The process involves dealing with particular sections of the format one at a time (1XX fields, 2XX fields etc). As part of this process 'new' USMARC fields for cataloguing electronic publications are being proposed. Because of the policy to address changes to UKMARC by sets of tag numbers, there has not been a single proposal for all the relevant fields, rather a gradual introduction of fields depending on the numbering of the tags. This can cause confusion in trying to identify all fields appropriate to cataloguing electronic resources.
It is worth noting that few UK libraries are currently cataloguing this type of material so there has been limited input experience of dealing with electronic documents. This is unlike the position with USMARC where the Intercat project gave the community experience in creating records, retrieving information using the records, and adapting current library management systems to handle the records.
9.2.1 Those fields already accepted into the UKMARC manual:
542 Mode of use note (machine-readable data files)
Note this is tag 538 in USMARC. A separate local access field is available in tag 856.
1. 542.00 $a Mode of use: On-line video or teletype terminal or with a small dedicated computer (e.g. PDP8).
2. 542.00 $a System requirements: 386SX processor; 6MB RAM; Windows 3.0; 7MB free space on hard disk.
9.2.2 Those fields already approved to be added to UK manual in an update:
856 Electronic Location and Access
The 856 field contains the information required to locate and retrieve an electronic item. The information identifies the electronic location containing the item or from which it is available. It also identifies the access method by which items can be retrieved. The information contained in this field should be sufficient to allow for the electronic transfer of a file, subscription to an electronic journal, or logon to an electronic resource.
Guidelines have been published by the Library of Congress on use of this field in USMARC:
The 856 indicators and subfields can be used to indicate the access methods e.g.
- Guidelines for the use of field 856. Prepared by the Network Development and MARC Standards Office. Revised March 1996.
Email, FTP, Remote login (Telnet), Dial-up, http, wais etc.
Subfield $u contains the Uniform Resource Locator (URL), which provides electronic access data in a standard syntax. Field 856 is structured to allow the creation of a URL from the concatenation of other separate field 856 subfields. Subfield $u may be used instead of those separate subfields or in addition to them. Subfield $u may be repeated if the other information in the field applies.
This field also allows for inclusion of:
- access number associated with a host. It can contain the Internet Protocol (IP) numeric address if the item is an Internet resource, or a telephone number if dial-up access is providedthrough a telephone line
- size of file
- hours of availability but if the record is for a system or service hours are recorded in field 307(Hours, etc.)
- Subfield $y contains the access method when the first indicator position contains value 7 (Method specified in subfield $y). This subfield may include access methods other than the three main TCP/IP protocols specified in the first indicator. The data in this subfield corresponds with the access schemes specified in Uniform Resource Locators (URL). The Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) maintains a registry of URL schemes and defines the syntax and use of new schemes; the British Library will include an authoritative list based on that standard in USMARC Code List for Relaters, Sources, Description Conventions.
856 firstname.lastname@example.org$t3270$tline mode
(e.g., vt100)$vM-F 6:00 a.m.-21:30 p.m. USA EST, Sat. 8:30-17:00 USA EST, Sun. 13:00-17:00 USA EST.
bytes 856 00$akeptvm.bitnet$facadlist file1$s34,989 bytes$facadlist
file2$s32,876 bytes$facadlist file3$s23987 bytes.
9.2.3 Fields contained in British Library December 96 consultative document:
258 Computer File Characteristics (NR)
This field is used to record characteristics pertaining to a computer file. It may contain information about the type of file (e.g. Computer programs), the number of records, statements, etc. (e.g. 1250 records, 5076 bytes).
307 Hours, etc. (NR)
258 00$aComputer data (2 files: 876,000, 775,000 records).
This field contains chronological information identifying the days and/or times an item is available or accessible. It is used primarily in records for electronic resources.
753 System Details Access to Computer Files
307 00$aM-F, 9AM-10PM
307 00$aTu-F, 10-6; Sa, 1-5, USA PST.
This field contains information relating to the type of machine, operating system, and/or programming language used with computer files and accompanying material. This kind of added entry is assigned to give access to the bibliographic record which otherwise would not be possible and to facilitate the capability of selecting and arranging records for production of printed indexes.
537 Type of Computer File or Data Note
753 00$aIBM PC$bPascal$cDOS 1.1
753 00$aCompaq$bBasic$cDOS 3.2
753 00$aApple II$cDOS 3.3.
In the consultative document it is suggested that this be expanded to include notes held in USMARC 516.
537 00$aSPSS 5.2
537 00$aText(Law reports)
537 00$aComputer program.
Most fields to do with electronic cataloguing are marked as provisional in UNIMARC - awaiting ISBD(ER) to be published. The exception is US/UKMARC 856, which will be considered at the next Permanent UNIMARC Committee (PUC) meeting in March 1997.
A draft version of UNIMARC Guideline 3 for Computer Files was issued in June 1995 and is now the January 1997 consultative document. (Note the renumbering of Guideline 3, as Older monographic publication guidelines was published with that number). These guidelines result from meetings of the IFLA Permanent UNIMARC Committee and the requirements of the International Standard Bibliographic Description for Computer Files, ISBD(CF). A new draft of this Guideline is expected soon. The current version can be made available, but the published version will take account of ISBD(ER), with a timetable dependent on the publication date of the latter. (ISBD(ER) in a later revision of ISBD(CF)).
The Guidelines for Computer Files have been formulated with off-line products in mind i.e. CD-ROMs, diskettes. No special fields such as URLs are specified for metadata specific for networked resources. The Guidelines are still being developed to be better suited for on-line materials as well.
9.3.2 Fields used for cataloguing electronic resources
The Guideline 3 specifies the use of existing fields for the description of computer files, but in addition other data elements from UNIMARC may be used in a record for a computer file. The probable need for additional fields or content designators and for redefinition of existing fields in the near future is acknowledged.
The following fields are specified in the guidelines:
Apart from the above mentioned fields, some of the (extra) information should be put in different fields of the Note block (3XX). This concerns the following data:
- title (field 200): Title as it appears on container, box, opening screen, formal title screen, first display of information, header of the file etc.
- parallel title (field 510): Title in another language appearing on the computer file
- author(s) (fields 200$f $g and/or 700, 701, 710, 711): Authors, programmers of the computer files as listed on the computer file
- author affiliation(s) (fields 700$p, 701$p, 710$p, 711$p): Institutional affiliations of the authors, programmers at the time the computer files were written or programmed
- edition statement (field 205): Any word or phrase indicating that the information was available previously in a different form
- publication, distribution (field 210)
- physical description of the computer file (fields 215, 230): To be omitted for remotely accessed computer files, because there is no physical item
- accompanying materials (fields 215, 307): User handbooks
- series (fields 225, 410)
- availability information (fields 345, 010, 011): Price units, stock number, agency for ordering a copy of the computer files.
The 1XX block provides fields for:
- type of computer file (field 336)
- technical details of computer file (field 337)
- notes pertaining to title and statement of responsibility (field 304)
- notes pertaining to edition: (Licensed by...) (field 305)
- notes pertaining to publication, distribution (Shareware, etc.) (field 306)
- notes pertaining to series (field 308)
- notes pertaining to availability (field 310)
- contents notes
- users/Intended audience note.
In Guideline 3 no special field is provided yet for information pertaining to location. USMARC 856 is being examined to see if it can be adopted for UNIMARC.
- coded data
- qualifying data
- language of computer file
- target audience
- publication date
- country of publication or production
- coded data relating to computer files: program, representational, textual.
Field 135 is the provisional Coded Data Field for Computer Files. For type of computer file and technical details fields 336 and 337 in the Notes block are defined.
188.8.131.52 Host administrative data:
- in field 135, a one-character code indicates the type of data file:
- a = numeric
- b = computer program(s)
- c = representational (pictorial or graphic information)
- d = text
- u = unknown
- v = combination
- z = other
- type of computer file (field 336): contains information characterising the type of computer file. In addition to a general descriptor (e.g. text, computer program, numeric), more specific information, such as the form or genre of textual material (e.g. biography, dictionaries, indexes) may be recorded in this field.
- technical details note (field 337): This field is used to record technical information about a computer file, such as the presence or absence of certain kinds of codes or the physical characteristics of the file (e.g. recording densities, parity, or blocking factors). For software, data such as the software programming language, the number of source program statements, computer requirements (e.g. computer manufacturer and model, operating system, or memory requirements), and peripheral requirements (e.g. number of tape drives, number of disk or drum units, number of terminals, or other peripheral devices, support software or related equipment) can be recorded.
No fields are specified for information pertaining to the host. USMARC practice may be adopted for UNIMARC.
184.108.40.206 Administrative metadata
There are no fields for record review date and creation date.
Availability information is included in fields 345 (Acquisition information note), 010 (ISBN) and 011 (ISSN). Further notes pertaining to availability go in field 310 (Notes pertaining to binding and availability).
220.127.116.11 Terms of availability/copyright
The relevant USMARC fields are being examined for this purpose.
18.104.22.168 Rules for the construction of these elements
Field 801 (Originating Source), subfield $g, contains an abbreviation for the cataloguing code used for bibliographic description and access. The Manual gives a list of the accepted codes in an appendix. Other codes may be registered with the IFLA UBCIM Programme.
22.214.171.124 Multi-lingual issues
Character positions 26-29 and 30-33 of field 100 subfield $a are used to designate the default and additional graphic character sets used in the record. Sets approved for use with UNIMARC are:
- ISO 646 (IRV), Basic Latin set
- ISO 5426-1980, Extended Latin set
- ISO Registration #37, Basic Cyrillic set
- ISO DIS 5427, Extended Cyrillic set
- ISO 5428-1980, Greek set
- ISO 6438-1983, African coded character set.